Following on from my last article, I have decided to expand upon the topic. This is mainly because of the comment I made in relation to special relativity at the end of the last article. This may hurt your head a little, but it does conform to what we know of the standard model and quantum mechanics.
If we look at the first diagram, we can observe the problem. If we have an object traveling at 90% of the speed of light and it emits a light beam, the beam will leave relative to the object at C. When the light beam reaches our observer, he observes the beam passing also at the speed of light. Not at light speed plus the speed of the moving object, which would be expected in scenarios such as throwing a ball from a moving car.
So, how do we resolve this in terms of physical structure? How do we maintain the velocity of light for all observers, yet allow apparent deacceleration?
The answer may be hidden in the double slit experiment. Here is a good video that explains what is happening during this experiment. According to theory, what is happening in the double slit experiment is that the photons, or electrons, are taking all paths simultaneously. If we look at the second diagram to the left, we can observe how this manifests in the dimension of time. Our object, traveling at 90%C, emits a photon. This photon is actually spread across the dimension of time, that is, the photon is traveling through all time frames at once. Each time frame is separated by an energy level, with decreasing energy being farther into the future.
If we look at the third diagram, we can observe what this actually looks like. The 'v' shape reflects the contraction and acceleration of time as the energy level decreases. So, at the top of the 'v', energy is at its greatest and time is expanded fully. In terms of relativity, we would say time has slowed. At the bottom of the 'v', energy is at its lowest and time has contracted fully. Again, in terms of relativity we would say that time has accelerated. We can begin to observe, from this structure, how the speed of light is maintained for all observers.
If we now take a look at the forth diagram, we can observe the mechanics of the invariance of the speed of light for all observers. An object traveling at 90%C emits photons, the energy of the forward velocity must be lost immediately as Maxwell's equations show that an EM wave must travel at C. In doing so, the photon is injected at a future time frame and becomes available in a band of time frames. Our observer, in this case an electron, is traveling at a lower velocity and therefore has a lower amount of energy to lose. As a result, it collects the photon in an earlier time frame. Thus, the speed of light is maintained, or conserved, by varying the dimension of time. It also explains why the same event can appear to happen at different times to multiple observers.
This gives the interesting concept of bands, or tubes, of time and that energy has a different meaning in terms of time than it does in terms of kinetic motion. There is the notion of how much energy a particle has (like a photon) which puts it in a particular time frame and how much it can give up (like an electron) which allows it to access a particular time frame. So, the electron has its own time frame and a time frame it can access. This is quite distinct from the overall energy level that time itself currently has and as we are not discussing cosmic scales, we can avoid this for now. This gives rise to the notion of nested time frames and being in multiple locations at once.
To understand this concept, we need to return to one of our diagrams from the previous article. In the fifth diagram we can observe the time arrow as a product of decreasing energy. If we overlay this diagram with the kinetic energy a system has, we will observe the contents of the sixth diagram. In this diagram, our world is actually in the future, with information being exchanged between particles subject to special relativity which are closer to 'now'. In that respect, what we call events are merely probable events and have little, or no relation, to the events that happen at 'now'.
If we were to plot the accessible information exchange, then our last diagram would become somewhat inverted, with the areas of General Relativity and Special Relativity switching places. That said, light itself would still occupy the left hand area which means our 'future line' becomes a product of increasing mass energy. As such, it shows why you cannot reach light speed by accelerating mass.