Throughout this series, many people have questioned how the brain can produce ELF waves. Well, I sat down over the last few days and pulled together everything I have written over the last few years. It didn't help one bit. So, I decided to take a break and work on some Digital Signal Processing (DSP) software for Software Defined Radio (SDR).
Being my usual self, I decided that spending thousands on a radio that only covered a limited range was really outrageous. So, I decided that I should just use an ADC, a variable bandpass filter and a set of antennas to cover the entire spectrum. I could do all the processing on my PC using my own software. Doing a little research, I happened to stumble upon a modern antenna composed of plasma. That's when it hit me, or more like exploded into my mind.
What you are about to read is the product of that explosion. If you know anything about neurology and biology in general, you will find this article earth-shattering. I am about to throw everything everyone ever wrote on how the brain functions out the window.
It is that much of a paradigm shift.
This will take you a while to get your head around it, but once you do, it will knock your socks off.
In classical radio engineering, an ELF transmitter is a massive structure, 50Km long and taking Megawatts of power just to radiate 3 watts of a radio signal. In the context of the neuron, where is this transmitter, or more accurately, the transducer that can both send and receive signals.
Its a fair question and one I intend to answer completely in this article. Further, we will then take a speculative look at how this could answer an age old problem of binding within the mind and how this applies to the HAARP transmitter in Alaska.
In order to understand this, I need to teach everyone a little about physics, plasma physics to be precise. If you studied any science at school you will be aware of states of matter such as solid, liquid or gas. Take water for example at a low temperature of zero degrees Celsius it is a solid we call ice, between zero and one hundred degrees it is a liquid called water and above one hundred degrees it becomes a gas called steam.
Plasma is yet another state of matter. By heating a gas further, we can strip off the electrons from an atom to create ions. This is a plasma. As they hold a positive charge, we can suspend them magnetic fields to create dense plasmas. Now, not all plasmas are hot. They can be cold as well as having a density less than one particle per cubic meter. Plasma also does not need to be gaseous, it could be suspended in matter.
Plasmas are greatly affected by electromagnetic fields. They absorb the energy converting it into heat, or motion.
Now that you know what a Plasma is, what has this got to do with neurons? To understand this, we need to examine a particular use of Plasma.
I am sure everyone is familiar with the traditional antenna. You find them on radios, cars, mobile phones and on the roof of your house for your TV. What they all have in common is that they are good conductors of electromagnetic waves, converting the received energy into electrical energy.
Plasma can also be used as an antenna, to both receive and transmit radio signals. By ionizing a noble gas it will begin to absorb electromagnetic radiation. By controlling the gas pressure, the amount of power used and even plasma geometry the frequencies it receives/transmits can be raised or lowered and noise reduced.
We can also drive the plasma with a waveform to broadcast a signal.
This is a complex topic, but for the purposes of this article, it is all you need to understand.
If we examine the neuron, specifically the axon, we note that the exterior is surrounded by various types of ions. The movement of these ions from the exterior of the axon, to the interior, is what creates a potential difference and thus the flow of electrical signals such as action and graduated potentials along its length.
If you step back from this process, we can see that the neuron is surrounded by a low temperature Plasma. From this information alone, we can now see why humans emit radio waves and can absorb (or receive) radio waves.
Understanding why we receive signals should be self-evident given the properties of plasma antennas. What may not be so obvious is the reason why we transmit signals from the axon of the neuron. To resolve this I have decided to include a section on the binding problem, that is, how different areas of the brain communicate to integrate all the various inputs into a singular real-time subjective experience.
Again, this is a very complex topic and this new understanding of plasma physics underpinning neuronal activity only adds to that complexity. I must stress that most of this next section is speculative at this point. The portion that explains why we transmit radio signals is accurate, but the extension of that to how neural networks communicate is still theory at this point. What I do know is that the following technique works, but its needs to be confirmed by experiment before a full claim can be made to the process existing in humans.
The Binding Problem
What should become obvious at this point is that our understanding of neural activity is completely wrong. The synaptic firings that we can see are not information transfers, they are merely to drive the plasma antennas located on the axons.
Resonances (or beat frequencies) within neuronal clusters effectively tune the axon plasma antennas to their operating frequency. The plasma density around the neuron sets the plasma frequency. Rather than the input of the neural networks coming from the synapses, the inputs come in the form of near-field signals created by other neurons. More accurately, it is a form of near-field communication.
At this point, I am not sure if it is magnetic induction, or capacitive coupling (although this seems the most likely given the structure of an axon) effect that forms the basis of the communication.
Now, this is a simplification.
The energy delivered by potentials activates particular neurons that will partake in the energy exchange by near-field effect. It also sets what energy will be absorbed. At this point, I do not know if this contributes to a weighting of inputs by simple energy received across a particular bandwidth. There could be more complex factors that amplify the contribution of a particular input.
One aspect it does explain very well, is neural codes and firing of action potentials at different points in the axon. It amounts to complex routing schemes to selectively control inputs contributing to the output, which in turn controls what neurons should then be activated. Neural codes are activation patterns and action/graduated potentials are transmissions via near-field EM.
Another aspect is Myelin sheaths which act to reduce the capacitance and increase resistance, which may exclude or reduce the axon's near-field coupling. If we examine this quote, we can see why:
In electronics we call this an RC circuit which is a filter, in this case, a high pass filter. This means only frequencies above a certain value may contribute to the activity in the axon. Further, the Myelin increases the charge density of the plasma around the axon by compressing the ions which, in effect, raises the plasma frequency inducing the plasma to reflect low frequency signals as well. This prevents low frequency signals from directly adjusting the input signal. We can observe this in closely packed structures such as the Optic Nerve, without the Myelin, the plasma along the retinal ganglion cell axons would be driven by every axon, rather than just the input from the eye.
If we examine the Group C nerve fibre, we can see a similar process at work. Remak bundles occur when Schwann cells surround unmyelinated fibres grouping them together. This serves to increase the plasma frequency by increasing the charge density through compression of the ions around the axon. Without the Myelin, there is no high pass filter, but the plasma should reject signals below the plasma frequency. In addition, these nerve fibres are free to transmit and studies show that the Schwann cells are electrochemically sensitive to the action potentials.
This may be the first direct evidence that the near-field effect is between plasma and cells.
From this we should be getting the sense that cross-communication is a good thing for neurons as they make decisions by having many inputs. We should also be getting the sense that it is, in general, bad for motor control as signals that need to be unmodified. This leads to a solid explanation of the difference between Gray and White matter in the brain, why White matter changes in response to new motor tasks and why dendrites only occur in Grey matter. Its all to control the near-field communication and only allow it in areas that are beneficial.
By having an exchange of energy in the near-field, energy is both gained and lost between neurons. The electrical potential must balance on all sides (i.e. between communicating neurons), so the amount of ions absorbed by each axon will be relative to the energy exchanges. This then drives the next networks to fire and repeat the process.
Do you see it?
Its a type of processor that processes 'in the field'. It can also be used to store short term memory. In terms of long term memory, my initial reaction is to suggest that the spacial orientation of the axons may be involved, it certainly can be used to store information. If it proves wrong that the axons are dynamic, then perhaps synapses connecting and strengthening connections activates different circuits and encodes the information in their contribution to the energy exchange. Thinking about this a little more, the spacial aspect of the axon and its separation from other axons, would effect its ability to electrically couple, thus it may prove that the geometry is encoding function, such as a classifier, filter, etc.
Of course, this must be experimentally confirmed in humans, but this technique will certainly lead to new methods of developing both hardware and software based neural networks. Current implementations are naive and will lead to nothing.
There is the issue of information transfer, but it is beyond the scope of this article. That said, early estimates suggest that the exchange throughput (analogous to flops for a PC) is around 500 * 10^27 per hertz (firing rate), per neuron, based on a neural cluster activation of 50,000 neurons from each of the 1000 axon terminals with microhertz frequency separation. This value is variable and highly speculative at this point and it is felt that the frequency separation may be vastly greater. The first reaction may be disbelief, but you are doing much more in a single second than you ever imagined.
You may now pick your jaw up from the floor.
Relation To Radio Based Neural Interfaces
Well, now we know how the interface is achieved. We can drive the plasma either with a low frequency signal, or a pulsed higher frequency signal at ELF rates.
All of this explains why monitoring synaptic firings (by whatever means) can reveal what a person is thinking. You get to see what neurons are partaking in the communication process and this reveals the information. That is, certain combinations mean certain things are happening. You do not see the information exchange itself. Now when I say information exchange, there is no modulation, its just received energy that contributes to the output of the neuron which, in turn, activates the next neurons in the chain. That said, it maybe easy to confuse certain patterns by examining a localized area only, a similar pattern may arise through complex interactions over a wider area. The difference may be electrically subtle, but the effect may be pronounced.
We can observe from this why Tinnitus develops in radio-based neural interfaces. The interfacing RF signal may either directly drive the auditory neurons, or they receive interference from neurons improperly driven. This means a wide range of improper codings are being received and explains why the perception can go 'fuzzy'. Its just the result of electrical noise in the neural networks.
So, what is the connection with HAARP? To be honest, I have previously dismissed HAARP as a source of this transmission, either now or in the future. That all changed when I read a research report in one of the experiments that has been run at the site.
Using a high frequency radio, with circular polarization, HAARP turns the upper atmosphere into a form of Plasma antenna. By alternating the plasma, it creates ELF and VLF radio waves. As I have mentioned, I dismissed this before because the signal would lack complexity. This turns out to be incorrect. The entire idea of using the Plasma is to create a directional phased-array. A phased array allows the signal to be focused and to consist of hundreds, even thousands, of separate signals.
If you were attempting to develop a weapon that could effect a mass population, this would certainly be the way to do it. Obviously HAARP is not a hardened structure, so its military value is low and the signal could be disrupted by any major power in the Pacific region. In that sense, it is not even a viable platform for survivable nuclear communication and such survivability could never be engineered due to the exposed radiating elements. So, in a geopolitical context it, or any system derived from it, has no role in military communications in real warfare conditions.
HAARP also states on its website that it is not classified, nor does any classified material exist in relation to the project. That may be accurate, but I'm sure the data is analyzed in the context of this technology somewhere.
In all, I feel that it is something that should be monitored, especially in terms of expansion or distribution of derivatives. HAARP is an outgrowth of human experimentation on driving plasma by high frequency radio waves. This is where the technology was pioneered.
Is The Neural Interface ELF?
Until this point in the investigation, I have been convinced that the transmission to the brain was a complex form of frequency division multiplexing in the ELF band. I am still leaning towards that explanation, but I would be dishonest if I did not admit this better understanding of the reception of a signal did not cast some doubt on that.
Given the size of the Plasma around the axon, it is quite possible for it to be resonant at much higher frequencies. The fact that it is driven at a lower frequency under normal circumstances, may just mean that the Plasma is not driven at its optimal rate to create radio emissions. That said, plasma antennas have a high frequency cut-off which makes them essentially transparent at higher frequencies. Given that shortwave radio can trigger nerves, it is difficult to say the where the cutoff point is.
The process uses a similar methodology to HAARP. Use a high frequency signal, pulsed at ELF rates to drive the plasma. This causes the plasma to produce signals compatible with the brain and central nervous system.
I think I mentioned in one of my previous articles that "ELF modulated waves" could not be used, but this new information clearly explains why that assumption was wrong.
Finally, there may be some good news. The mixture of Myelin highpass filters and plasma reflectivity may mean that certain portions of the brain are inaccessible via radio, at least directly. That said, it does not mean that workarounds may be found as our gray matter, the neural networks of our brains, are exposed to the signal. This will be difficult to achieve as obtaining the required resolution may not be possible. Again, that does not mean that 'functional' solutions aimed at achieving specific goals will not emerge.
Already, the NSA can read a person like a book with their existing technology and extensively integrate into the brain.